Nutrient requirements of various animals
On the basis of various experiments in Gaddi Goats, it has been inferred that high energy (115% NRC) irrespective of protein levels resulted in significantly increased utilization of nutrient for growth and pregnancy. Similar observations were recorded in the Beetal goats when fed different levels of protein and energy in their diets.
It has been suggested on the basis of growth studies that the higher levels of protein and energy than those recommend by ARC could not produce significant gains in the body weight of lambs.
Different planes of nutrition were tested in the broiler rabbits and the recommendations were made to follow the higher plans of nutrition than that of NRC (1977).
It was observed in dairy cows that only high energy diets could significantly increase the fat corrected milk yield and total milk fat while different protein levels did not affect any of these two components of milk.
By- Products and waste material utilization
To economize the cost of compounded feed, the following locally available by-products were tested for their suitability.
Water cress (Nasturtium officinals R.Br.) Plant meal:
It was tested in growing chicks of both layer and broiler strains as a substitute for equal amounts of wheat bran and ground nut cake and was found suitable at the level of 5% feeding for starter chicks and 10% levels for growers.
Amlora (Rumex hustatus D. Don) leaf –meal
It was found to be unsuitable for starter chicks whereas for grower chicks it was good at 10% level of feeding.
A by-products of beer industry having 24.5% CP and 14% CF failed to support normal growth rates in broiler due to its higher fiber contents.
A by-product of apple juice industry having 4.5% CP and 18.6% CF was found suitable at the level of 33% substitution for maize in crossbred calves to give better growth performance.
Kaenth fruit (Pyrus Pashia ) Meal
This meal was found to be a highly satisfactory replacement of maize at 10% level in the diet of starter chicks.
It was found unpalatable and unsuitable for feeding in Jersey Calves due to the presence of higher levels of Tannins and Saponins, but can be used after chemical treatment.
Silk worm Pupae
It was found an excellent source of protein in calf starter.
Wild isbgol (Plantaoo lanceolata)
It showed better growth response in chicken when fed at 16% level by replacing maize and groundnut cake in the ratio of 3:1.
Khesari seed meal (Lathyrus Sativa)
The autoclaved meal of this material was found to support normal calf growth when fed as a replacement for maize and groundnut cake in the ratio 3:1.
Tung seed meal
This meal can be used after treatment with rectified spirit and 0.2 N NaOH at 5% level in growing chicks as a replacement of deoiled groundnut cake and maize.
Degradation Kinetics of locally available forages
Degradation Kinetics revealed that lignin contents of oats, berseem, white clover ,maize and soyabean green fodders. Kikuyu, Guinea, para, Rhodes, Setaria grasses and apple pomace was more inhibitory to digestion than that of legumes.
Augmented nutritive value of low grade roughages
Poor quality crop residues like wheat straw and paddy straw were enriched for crude protein either by ammoniation or by fungal treatments.
Silage and haylage
Maize silage prepared by supplementing 2% (d.m.l.) urea and 5%(fresh basis) molasses gave better performance in lactating Jersey animals as far as their milk yield and milk fat contents are concerned. The haylage prepared by supplementing 2% (d.m.l.) urea and 5% (fresh basis) molasses also gave overall better performance in Jersey heifers as a basal feed.
Development of milk replacer
A modified milk replacer for rearing of weaner calves from birth to 90 Days of age has been developed which is not only cheaper by approximately Rs. 200/- but also gives comparable growth response to that of Standard milk feeding and at the same time spares 127 Litres of milk for human consumption.
Carrying Capacity of Pastures/Grasslands
The nutritional evaluation and the carrying capacity of grasslands located at Palampur ,Phuttakhal and Bara banghal Representing the agro-climatic zones II,III and IV respectively, have revealed that the herbages of all the grasslands of the Pradesh are deficient in Copper and marginally deficient in Zinc and the dry matter production was in a decreasing trend in Zinc and the dry matter production was in a decreasing trend in contrast to the nutritional status which showed increasing trend and their respective carrying capacity was 1.31,1.21 and 0.64 animal unit/ ha/annum, respectively.
Significant improvement in these grasslands can br e brought about by the soil application of copper sulphate and urea @2.5 kg. and 40kg. N per ha, respectively.
Further studies on the improvements in the quality and quantity of the herbages undertaken showed that both Seteria +Leucaena and Setaria +Robinia appeared to be best introductions for establishing a silvi –Herbage System in the mid hills of Himachal Pradesh owing to their higher dry matter Production ,Better digestibility of Nutrients, higher DCP and TDN’s levels and higher carrying capacity per annum, besides maintaining better growth and production of the Stock. But for achieving optimum growth and Production levels , these herbages are still inadequate and dairy animals are required to be fed with extra concentrates to meet their optimum DCP and TDN requirements. More over, leucaena is Slow Growing And is Comparatively less Adaptable under Palampur like Conditions, and thus the only choice left under such circumstances is that of Setaria + Robinia (in hedges) Combination System.
For improvement in the alpine pastures of agro climatic zone IV, systematic eradication of inedible weeds like Verbascum thaosus and Cynanchum vince-toxicum followed by urea and copper sulphate applications @40Kg N and 2.5kg Per ha, respectively coupled with reseeding with Lotus Corniculatus, Festuca aloinum etc. is the most promising technology.
Application of Probiotics
Four strains each of lactobacillus bulogaricus and Streptococcus lactis and six Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were procured from different sources i.e. Central Food Technology Research Institute, Mysore , IARI New Delhi, Vetcare AI-Tech, inc USA ,Diamond USA and HPKV, Palampur for testing their biological Performance in the poultry Stock . Isolations of 11,21 and 18 Strains of Lacto bacilli, Streptococci and yeast respectively were also made from different sources like fruits ,vegetables, foods , feeds, faecal matters of domestic and wild animals, birds etc. All the Strains were also characterized by the Standard Methods. The biological evaluation of the various strains of microbes i.e. 13,14 and 19 Lactobacilli, Streptococci and Yeasts respectively was done on broiler and layer chicks to study their effects on meat and egg production. 15 growth and the digestibility studies were done on 1-week—old broilers to test the biological responses of the different strains of Microbes. Two short –term and two Long-term studies were done on layers for egg Production. Four studies were done to test the strains specificity of the broiler stocks to response of the useful microbial combinations.
The Studies of various microbial treatments on broilers and layers have revealed:-
- The Response of the useful bacterial cultures is variable with the strains of the microbes or their mixture and that of the Poultry Stocks on which they used.
- The compatibility of different microbes in a combination for producing desirable response seems to be specific.
- The positive response of the microbial cultures may be shown by growth or feed conversion efficiency or control of chick mortality or by the combined effects of these various parameters.
- Under field conditions , the promising microbes alone or in combinations have shown good responses especially in broilers which based on the basis of the field studies at 22 Rural farms.
- It was also found that the microbial cultures (Lactobacilli, Streptococci and yeast ) to be used as probiotics , can be Safely preserved in a cheaper medium for a period of two weeks at ambient temperature the range of 20 to 37 degree C with 40 and 20% humidity respectively and for prolonged duration , cold storage Will be the Alternative.
Carrying Capacities of grasslands of Agro-climatic zones II,III and IV
- Carrying Capacities of grasslands of Agro-climatic zones II,III and IV of Himachal Pradesh were worked out to be 1.31,1.21 and 0.64 AU/Hec/Anum.
- On priority, the fast multiplying inedible weeds like Verbascum ( Verbascum Thapsus) and Cynanchum ( Cynanchum vincitoxicum) need to be eradicated from the prized alpine pasture of Bara Banghal.
- Strategies developed for improving the grasslands include the introduction of Setaria grass (Setaria anceps) & robinia legumes foder tree (Robina Pseudoacacia) in hedges in sub-temperature/sub-tropical and fescue & dactylis grass ( Festuca aloinum , F. Arundinacea & Dactylis glomerata & Trifolium Legumes ( Trifolium repens & Trifolium Pratense ) in alpine areas, Besides the application of40 Kg. N, 30Kg. P205 & 2.5 Kg . copper sulphate/hect. on all grasslands.
- Highly efficient milk replacer developed for growing calves.
- Energy requirement of Gaddi Goats were found to be 115% of NRC Levels.
- Probiotics fed only during the Starter and Growing Phases of the Layer
Stock , were found to Show their beneficial effects during the entire period of Lay.
- The nutrient requirements of Growing Angora Kits (40 to 140 days of Age) were found to be 115% of the French recommendation under Palampur like Condition.
TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY / RECOMMENDATIONS GIVEN IN THE LIGHT OF FIELD APPLICATION:
- National level Subject Matter Workshop –cum-Seminars on Rabbit Farming for Veterinarians from Different States were organized during 20-27 Oct., 11-18 Jan 1996, 16-23 Jan.,1997 ,20-27 Oct .,1997 and 15-22 Sept.,1998 Which Was Sponsored by the Directorate of Extension , Ministry of agriculture , Deptt. Of Agr. & Cooperation , Govt. Of India.
- Under the revolving Fund Scheme, Formulations of standard Mineral mixture, Uromol-min-bricks, milk ration with protected proteins, dog biscuits and feed for Poultry, Angora rabbits, laboratory Animals etc. have been standardized and introduced for Sale to the farmers through the university technology information and sale centres.
- Feed testing service is also rendered for the benefit of the farmers and state livestock farms.
- Consultancy service to the progressive dairy farmers and Feed industry is also rendered.
- Regular participation by the scientists of the department in various training courses , workshops and kisan melas etc. organized by the Directorate of Extension Education ,HPKV.